Motivational interviews are generally used to investigate motivational capacity and change personality traits associated with motivation. Motivational interviews, also called personality-driven interviews, are conducted in settings that do not require great attention to detail. This makes them suitable for use in a wide variety of settings, including school, colleges and universities, hospitals, businesses, and other organizations.
Surveys of the American public have suggested that there is a strong connection between unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle and increased health risks and diseases. Most people believe that it is more difficult to change the attitude and behaviors related to diet than to change other unhealthy habits such as smoking or drinking. However, research has shown that dietary attitudes are influenced by biological and environmental factors, and are not entirely heritable. Similarly, attitudes towards exercise may be genetically determined, but they can change with time. Finally, extrinsic motivators such as peer pressure or financial rewards may be associated with distorted beliefs regarding motivation to change and unhealthy dieting, leading to low motivation to change.
Lifestyles And Health Behaviour
The study examines motivational capacity to change lifestyles and health behaviour as part of a larger research programme examining the relationship between diet, exercise, alcohol consumption and other lifestyle factors and dementia risk. Detailed data from interviews with more than 1000 adults (aged 50 or over) who have lived in the same neighbourhood for more than a decade were obtained. Interviewees were asked a series of questions to explore their thoughts on nutrition, physical activity, social engagement and related issues. The main aim of the interview was to explore whether there was a strong association between these factors and dementia risk. The primary outcome measure was the presence of dementia risk factors, which were analysed separately according to participants’ diet, exercise, alcohol consumption and other factors.
A multivariate analysis was then conducted to explore the robustness of the results. This involved using data from a secondary data source and examining a sample of elderly people with dementia. Analysis focused on the effect of diet, exercise, alcohol consumption and other behaviours on cognitive function. As expected, participants with dementia had significantly lower mean scores on the NEMT-Riverside Adult Cognitive Skills Test  in comparison to controls. In addition, participants with dementia had significantly lower scores on several other measures including self-rated health, sense of purpose and social interaction.
Participants Aged 50 Years And Above
A significant positive association was found between diet and participants aged 50 years and above who drank heavily (i.e. more than 20 drinks per week). Furthermore, there was a significant negative trend for those participants aged 50 years and above who ate very little (or not at all). It was concluded that there is a strong, protective relationship between diet and dementia and that interventions designed to reduce sugar and high fat diet may be able to prevent progression to dementia in old age. The results appear to strengthen the theory that lifestyle can indeed play an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
A separate study by Urban and colleagues  explored the relationship between perceived severity of a social phobia and its potential contribution to the progression of dementia. The study involved two groups of Australian aborigines, whose mean age was 65. One group of participants completed a standard structured questionnaire about their social phobias; the second group was tested at a health centre for assessment of suspected dementia.
A Number Of Theories
The results showed that higher perceived severity of social phobia was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing dementia over a period of 10 years. There are a number of theories surrounding the relationship between alcohol and health, which is not fully understood.
However, in the current study it was found that those who drink heavily have a higher prevalence of alcohol-induced health problems such as cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis, and cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. This study supports previous research which showed links between alcohol and poor health and this study helps strengthen this particular link.
Finally, another study which examined the relationship between alcohol and dementia risk reduction by looking at the influence of religious beliefs on the type of behavioural change and motivation to change lifestyles. It found that both men and women who had a strong sense of religion were more likely to engage in alcohol and drug abuse. The authors concluded that these differences may be due to the influence of religion on beliefs. Those with a strong belief system are believed to be happier and have fewer behavioural problems. The current study provides the first evidence in support of this hypothesis.